Annotated References for the mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus (Theobald)     


The following list contains references that mention Ochlerotatus japonicus or Aedes japonicus by name. Note that prior to Reinert's revision of the genus Aedes in 2000, Ochlerotatus japonicuswas known as Aedes japonicus. Most of the following references contain little information beyond collection records, associated species, and types of larval habitat. Many are taxonomic in nature, or are keys to Asian mosquitoes, but scattered throughout these references are gems of ecological information. I have included comments where I found it appropriate, and provided abstracts or highlights from articles that are not readily available.

For those articles available on-line, links and addresses are included. Many of the older articles and those published in the journal Mosquito Systematics are available online through the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit website at http://wrbu.si.edu/ . A list of worldwide distribution records for Oc. japonicus can be found here.

Questions, comments, additions, and errors should be addressed to Jamie Scott atlcvcd@mchsi.com 


  • Andreadis, T.G., J.F. Anderson, L.E. Munstermann, R.J. Wolfe, and D.A. Florin. 2001a. Discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 38(6):774-9. Available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members athttp://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html 

  • Andreadis, T.G., J.F. Anderson, and C. R. Vossbrinck. 2001b. Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(4):670-674. Available from the CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no4/pdfs/andreadis.pdf  [A total of 690Oc. japonicus adults were collected from 84 different locations in Connecticut during the 2000 surveillance season. The 690 mosquitoes were tested in 250 pools. None were positive for West Nile virus.]

  • Andreadis, T.G., J.J. Becnel,and S.E. White. 2003. Infectivity and pathogenicity of a novel baculovirus, CuniNPV from Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) for thirteen species and four genera of mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol. 40(4): 512-517

  • Berry, Richard. 1999AEDES JAPONICUS – USA (OHIO). ProMED-mail 22-OCT-1999. Archive number 19991022.1897. < http://www.promedmail.org >. Accessed 05 December 2002.

  • Bohart, R. M. 1946. A Key to the Chinese Culicine Mosquitoes. U. S. NAVMED 961. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department, Washington, D. C.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/011500-1.PDF 

  • Chagin, K. P. and P. I. Kondratiev. 1943. Vectors of autumnal (Japanese) encephalitis in Soviet Far East and their control. Med. Parasit. and Parasitic Dis. 12:34-44. [Abstract available in Biological Abstracts 19(8), No. 17661. Oct. 1945]

  • Chiba, Y. 1967. Activity of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes japonicus under a step-wise decrease of light intensity. Scientific Reports of Tohoku University, Series IV (Biology), 33, 7-13.

  • Ching-Hua, Meng. 1981. A Proposed system of classification of Aedes chrysolineatus and related species. Entomotaxonomia III(4):243-254. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/089600-3.PDF 

  • Chow, C. Y. 1950. Collection of Culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Taiwan (Formosa), China, with description of new species. Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum 3(4):281-287. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/021000-2.PDF 

  • Darsie, R. F., Jr.  2002.  Revision of Darsie and Ward (1981) to include Ochlerotatus japonicusTheobald and a checklist of species referred to the genus Ochlerotatus in the Nearctic region.  J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 18(4):237-240.  [Includes new couplets for the Darsie & Ward's 1981 adult & larval keys and illustrations of key characters for Oc. japonicus &Ae. aegypti]

  • Dowler, Henry. 1998. National Pest Management Strategy for Exotic Mosquitoes.http://www.maf.govt.nz/mvg/biosec3/bio30007.htm#E21E47  (Accessed 22 July 1998). [Describes the interception of Ochlerotatus japonicus at the Port of New Zealand.]

  • Dyar, H.G. 1921. Two new mosquitoes from China (Diptera, Culicidae). Insectutor Inscitiae Menstruus. 9:147-148. [Dyar described Oc. japonicus as "Aedes eucleptes" twenty years after Theobald described it as Culex japonicus. In 1922 Edwards synonymized the species as Aedes japonicus in his publication "Synopsis of adult Oriental culicine (including megarhynine and sabethine) mosquitoes. Part II."]

  • Edwards, F.W. 1922. A Synopsis of adult Oriental culicine (including megarhynine and sabethine) mosquitoes. Part II. Indian J. Med. Res. 10:430-475, pl. 8-10.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/039100-25.PDF  [Edwards synonymized Theobald’s and Dyar’s descriptions as Aedes japonicus]

  • Falco, R. C., T. J. Daniels, and M. C. Slamecka. 2002. Prevalence and Distribution ofOchlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two counties of southern New York State. J. Med. Entomol. 39(6):920-925. Available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html

  • Feng, L.C. 1938. A Critical review of literature regarding the records of mosquitoes in China. Peking Nat. Hist. Bull. 12:285-318.

  • Feng, L.C. 1958. Monograph on Mosquitoes of China. Peking. [in Chinese]http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/042200-2.PDF  [this article contains a brief description of the adult characters of Oc. japonicus, but no illustrations of this species]

  • Fonseca, D.M., S. Campbell, W.J. Crans, M. Mogi, I. Miyagi, T. Toma, M. Bullians, T.G. Andreadis, R.L. Berry, B. Pajac, M. Sardelis, and R.C. Wilkerson. 2001Aedes (Finalya)japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae), a newly recognized mosquito in the United States: analyses of genetic variation in the United States and putative source populations. J. Med. Entomol. 38:133-146. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/wrbu_pubs/369/WR369.PDF Also available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members athttp://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html 

  • Foss, A. F., and R. G. Dearborn. 2001. Preliminary Faunistic Survey of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) with a Focus on Population Densities and Potential Breeding Sites in Greater Portland, Maine. Maine Department of Conservation, Maine Forest Service, Forest Health & Monitoring Division, Augusta, Maine. Technical Report No. 42. (http://www.state.me.us/doc/mfs/mosq1.pdf , accessed 15 February 2002) [this is the first report of Oc. japonicus in Maine]

  • Graham, Alan C., and Jon Turmel. 2001. Distribution records of Vermont’s’ first introduced mosquito species, Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Northeastern Mosquito Control Association Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting, Salem, MA, 3-5 December 2001, p. 121. [Abstract only; this reports the first discovery of Oc. japonicus in VT. Adults were collected from infusion-baited gravid traps in early June and were present throughout the summer and into the fall after several frosts and pupae were collected into early October. Copies of the proceedings may be obtained from the NMCA through their website at www.nmca.org .)

  • Gutsevich, A.V. 1975. The Determination of mosquito females (Culicidae) by microscopic preparations of the head, IV. A Key to species of the Genus Aedes. Mosquito Systematics 7(2):164-173. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/MS/07/MS07N02P164.PDF 

  • Gutsevich, A.V. and A.M. Dubitskiy. 1987. New species of mosquitoes in USSR fauna. Mosquito Systematics 19(1):1-92. [This is a translation edited by R.A. Ward]http://wrbu.si.edu/www/MS/19/MS19N01P001.PDF 

  • Hammon, W. M., D. M. Rees, J. Casals, and G. Meiklejohn. 1949. Experimental transmission of Japanese B Encephalitis Virus by Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens var. pallens, suspected natural vectors. Am. J. Hyg. 50:46-50. [Hammon et al. were able to infect Oc. japonicus with Japanese B encephalitis in the lab, but were unable to demonstrate that Oc. japonicus could transmit the virus. A later study by Takashima and Rosen (1989) showed that Oc. japonicus was not only a competent vector of JE, but that infected females were also able to transmit the virus transovarially to their offspring.]

  • Hara, J. 1957. Studies on the female terminalia of Japanese mosquitoes. Jap. J. Exp. Med. 27:45-91. [Includes illustrations] http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/057200-0.PDF 

  • Harbach, R. E. and I. J. Kitching. 1998. Phylogeny and classification of the Culicidae (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 23(4):327-370. [Available online through Blackwell Publishinghttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/  and through many universities' libraries through EBSCOhost Electronic Journals Service (EJS)]

  • Harrison, B. A., P. B. Whitt, S. E. Cope, G. R. Payne, S. E. Rankin, L. J. Bohn; F. M. Stell, and C. J. Neely. 2002. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected near the Great Dismal Swamp: New state records, notes on certain species, and a revised checklist for Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104(3):655-662. [First published collection record of Oc. japonicus in Virginia.]

  • Heardon, M., C. Skelly, and P. Weinstein.  1999.  Improving the surveillance of mosquitoes with disease-vector potential in New Zealand.  NZ Public Health Rep. 6:25-28. http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/Files/phr0499/$file/phr0499.pdf  [Discusses the interceptions of Oc. japonicus in New Zealand]

  • Horsfall, W. R. 1955. Mosquitoes: Their Bionomics and Relation to Disease. The Ronald Press Company, New York, NY. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/062300-1.PDF 

  • Hsiao, T., and R. M. Bohart. 1946. The Mosquitoes of Japan and their medical importance. U. S. NAVMED 1095. Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department, Washington, D. C.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/063100-0.PDF 

  • Iriarte, W. L. Z., Y. Tsuda, Y. Wada, and M. Takagi. 1991. Distribution of mosquitoes on a hill of Nagasaki City with emphasis to the distances from human dwellings. Trop. Med. 33(3):55-60.

  • Kamimura, K. 1976. On the Japanese species of the family Culicidae, p. 150-188. In Sasa, M. (ed.), Science of Mosquitoes. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, Japan. [in Japanese]

  • Kano, R., M. Nitahara, and J. Awaya. 1954. Description of a new species of Culex(Culiciomyiasasai n. sp., collected in the southwestern part of Japan (Culicidae, Diptera). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology (Eisei Dobutsu) 5:14-20. [in Japanese with English summary] [The larvae of Culex sasai were collected from “clear water such as rock pools, artificial containers and the stumps of cut bamboo with Aedes japonicus, Aedes flavopictus, Tripteroides bambusa, Uranotaenia bimaculata and Armigeres subalbatus.”]

  • Kikuta H., M. Kuroiwa, R. Takagi, and T. Iizuka. 1999. Study on the isolation and identification of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil samples from Yakushima Island (II) Insecticidal activity and the identification of cry genes. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan. 68(3): 225-235. [Abstract: "We previously reported that 53 B. thuringiensis Isolates in soils from Yakushima Island were serologically investigated. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of these strains against the silkworm Bombyx mori and the mosquito larvae Aedes japonicuswas investigated and the identification of cry genes in these strains was conducted using the PCR method. Oligonucleotide primers used for making DNA probes were cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1Ca, cry1Da, cry1Ea, cry2Aa, cry4Aa, cry1Ba, cryl0Aa and cry 11Aa genes, depending on their specific nucleotide domains. Cry gene profiles of 24 serovar kurstaki strains were the same for crylAa, crylAb and crylAc with a type strain of HD-1, except for cry1Aa the Jano9-2-2 strain composed of cry1Aa and cry1Ab. All of the strains included the cry2Aa gene. In the 14 strains of serovar galleriae, all of the strains included the same crylAb and cry2Aa genes as the type strain. In the other serovar from Yakushima Island, thuringiensiskenyae and israelensis strains displayed different profiles from the type strains used in this experiment. Serovar kurstaki Jano9-2-2 revealed high insecticidal activity against silkworm larvae compared with the control strain HD-1. Serovar israelensis Aiko2-1-1 also revealed high activity against the Aedes japonicus larvae compared with the type strain. These two strains seem to include novel cry genes."]

  • Knight, K. L. 1948. The Aedes (FinlayaChrysolineatus Group of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America XL 2(5):1-45.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/069300-3.PDF 

  • Knight, K. L. 1968. Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia.- IV, Species of the subgroup Chrysolineatus of Group D, Genus Aedes, Subgenus Finlaya Theobald. Contrib. Amer. Ent. Inst. 2(5):1-45. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/wrbu_pubs/016/WR16.PDF 

  • Kutz FW, Wade TG, Pagac BB. 2003. A geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of West Nile virus in Maryland. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19(3):190-198.

  • LaCasse, W.J. 1948. Mosquito fauna of Japan and Korea. Part I. Mosquito survey data on Japan and their application in the control of mosquito-borne diseases. Off. Surg., HQ 1 Corps APO 301 (Japan).

  • LaCasse, W.J. and S. Yamaguti. 1948. Mosquito fauna of Japan and Korea. Part II. Off. Surg., HQ 1 Corps APO 301. Japan. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/073400-0.PDF  [An excellent publication that contains illustrations and keys to larvae and adults, as well as ecological information for most species. Like a Carpenter & LaCasse for Japan & Korea]

  • Laird, M., L. Calder, R.C. Thornton, R. Syme, P.W. Holder, and M. Mogi. 1994. JapaneseAedes albopictus among four mosquito species reaching New Zealand in used tires. J Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 10(1):14-23. [Describes the interception of Oc. japonicus at the Port of New Zealand]

  • Lee, K.W. 1994. Systematic survey of mosquitoes (Culicidae, Diptera) on Cheju Island. Korean J. Entomol. 24(3):253-258. [Oc. japonicus larvae were collected from rock pools on Cheju Island; no adults were collected.]

  • Lee, K.W., and P.J. Egan. 1986. Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Female Mosquito of Korea, Part 1. Department of the Army, 5th Preventive Medicine Unit, 18th Medical Command, APO San Francisco 96301.

  • Lee, K.W., and J.C. Lien. 1970. Pictorial keys to the mosquitoes of Korea. World Health Organization (WHO) Publication WHO/VBC/70.169. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/077000-0.PDF  [Simple illustrated keys to the adult and larval mosquitoes of Korea, including Oc. japonicus.]

  • Lien, J. C. 1962. Non-Anopheline mosquitoes of Taiwan: annotated catalog and bibliography. Pacific Insects 4(3):615-649. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/078100-0.PDF 

  • Lounibos, L. P. 2002. Invasions by insect vectors of human disease. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47:233-266. (Available online to subscribers or for a fee at www.AnnualReviews.org) [Includes a brief section summarizing the findings of previously published articles aboutOc. japonicus in the United States]

  • Mitamura, T., Mori, K., Kitaoka, M., and Tenjin, S. 1947. Experimental transmission of Japanese B virus by artificially infected mosquitoes. Tokyo Iji Shinshi 3076:812-819.

  • Miyagi, I. 1971. Notes on the Aedes (Finlayachrysolineatus subgroup in Japan and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Trop. Med. 13:141-151. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/091100-0.PDF 

  • Miyagi, I. 1972. Feeding Habits of some Japanese mosquitoes on cold-blooded animals in the laboratory. Trop. Med. 14:203-217. [reports that in the laboratory, Oc. japonicus feeds readily on mice and chicks, but not on reptiles or amphibians]

  • Mogi, M. 1977. A new species of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Japan. Tropical Medicine 19(2):129-140. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/092500-1.PDF  [Describes a new mosquito species, Aedes bekkui, and describes its larval habitat as "temporary ground pools in forests and bushes (Waku, 1950, 1952 ; Omori, 1952). Associated larvae were Aedes vexans nipponii, A. esoensis, A. alboscutellatus (Waku, 1950) Aedes nobukonis (Omori, 1952) and Aedes vexans nipponiiA. japonicus at the type-locality." (p. 138)]

  • Mohrig, W. 1967. The Taxonomic importance of the structure of the female genital organs in Culicid-Tribus Aedini. Angewandte Parasitologie 8:67-100.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/092600-0.PDF  [Although the original article has illustrations, they are not included with the article at this link]

  • Moriya, K., T. Yave, and F. Harada. 1973. Chorionic markings of some Aedine mosquitoes in Japan. I. Preliminary observations by a scanning electron microscope and a reflected lighting microscope. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology (Eisei Dobutsu) 24(1): 47-55. [In Japanese with English summary. Japanese text describes the shape and chorionic markings of 13 mosquito species, including Oc. japonicus. Includes line drawings illustrating of the shape of the eggs and photographs of chorionic sculpturing taken through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and reflected light microscope at 1,000x magnification.]

  • Nakata, G. 1959. Redescription of Aëdes (Finlayakobayashii Nakata, 1956. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology (Eisei Dobutsu) 10(1):16-22. [In Japanese]http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/094300-1.PDF 

  • Nakata, G. 1962. Taxonomical and ecological studies on Japanese mosquitoes. Sanitary Injurious Insects 6:43-173. [In Japanese]

  • Oliver, J., R. G. Means, and J. J. Howard. 2003. Geographic distribution of Ochlerotatus japonicus in New York State. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19(2):121-4.

  • Peyton, E.L., S.R. Campbell, T.M. Candeletti, M. Romanowski, and W.J. Crans. 1999Aedes(Finlayajaponicus (Theobald), a new introduction into the United States. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 15(2):238-241. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/wrbu_pubs/348/WR348.PDF  [The first published account of Oc. japonicus in North America; includes reprints of larval (good!) and adult illustrations (very dark!) from Tanaka et al. 1979; for a better version of the adult illustrations, go to http://wrbu.si.edu/www/culicidae/culicinae/oc/fin/japonicus.jpeg ]

  • Peyton, E.L., J. E. Pecor, T. V. Gaffigan, M. Trpis, L. M. Rueda, and R. C. Wilkerson. 1999. The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Lloyd E. Rozeboom Mosquito Collection. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 15(4):526-551.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/wrbu_pubs/352/WR352.PDF  [This article is a summary of the holdings of the The Lloyd E. Rozeboom Mosquito Collection. This collection includes 9 slides and no adult specimens of Oc. japonicus. The specimens were collected from Honshu, Japan and Taiwan.]

  • Rosen, L., J. Lien, and L. Lu. 1989. A Longitudinal study of the prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus in adult and larval Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in northern Taiwan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40(5):557-560.

  • Rosen, L., J. Lien, D. A. Shroyer, R. H. Baker, and L. Lu. 1989. Experimental vertical transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culex tritaeniorhynchus and other mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40(5):548-556.

  • Sasa, M., Kano, R., and S. Hayashi. 1950. A new species of mosquito, Aedes koreicoides n. sp., from Hokkaido. Jap. J. Exp. Med. 20:627-629. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/115800-0.PDF 

  • Sasa, M., Y. Nakahara, N. Ushiroku, H. Hashimoto, A. Uno, T. Ogino, T. Miyachi, F. Yokomizo, S. Koyama, A. Akagi, K. Yamaguchi, C. Saito, and H, Kumazawa. 1947. Studies on mosquitoes (7). Species of lowlands and mountains, observations in the Okayama District. Med. Biol. 11:152-154. [In Japanese] http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/116100-0.PDF 

  • Sasa, M. and K. Kamimura. 1971. Index and consideration on taxonomy of the Japanese mosquitoes, p. 1-47 (In Japanese). In: M. Sasa (ed.), Progress in medical zoology I. Gakujutsusho Shuppankai, Tokyo. [Sasa and Kamimura synonymized Tanimura’s 1952 description of Aedes tokushimaensis with Aedes japonicus]

  • Sardelis, M.R. and M.J. Turell. 2001Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in Frederick County, Maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for West Nile virus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 17(2):137-41.

  • Sardelis, M.R., J.D. Dohm, B. Pagac, R.G. Andre, and M.J. Turell. 2002a. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 39(3):480-484. Available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html 

  • Sardelis, M.R., M.J. Turell, and R.G. Andre. 2002b. Laboratory Transmission of La Crosse Virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 39(4):635-639.

  • Sardelis, M.R., M.J. Turell, and R.G. Andre. 2003. Experimental transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19(2):159-62.

  • Sato, S., Y. Inada, K. Kaida, S. Ose, and H. Nishitani. 1980. The larval habitats of mosquitoes in the Oshima Prefecture Japan. J. Hokkaido Univ. Ed. Sec. II B 31:25-40. [Oc. japonicuswere observed in discarded tires, concrete barrels, and tree holes]

  • Savignac, R., C. Back, J. Bourassa.  2002. Biological Notes on Ochlerotatus japonicus & other mosquito species new to Quebec [abstract].  In: The Abstract Book of A Joint Meeting: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association and the West Central Mosquito & Vector Control Association 2002 February 16-21; Denver, CO. Eatontown, NJ: American Mosquito Control Association. p. 21-22. Abstract number 16PS03.  [Abstract: Abstract:  Mosquito identifications performed in the context of biological control operations & of entomological surveillance for West Nile virus have led to the discovery of several species new to Quebec. The most significant discovery isOchlerotatus japonicus, a new mention for Canada.  The 1st adults were collected in 2000 with CDC light traps in Franklin (Qc).  In 2001 larvae & adults of Oc. japonicus were collected in 2 additional localities between Montreal & the border with NY.  The larvae were found in storm drains & used tires.  The other new mentions for Quebec are Culex tarsalis,Ochlerotatus, & Ochlerotatus churchillensis.  Species rarely mentioned before includeOchlerotatus trivittatus, Psorophora ferox Uranotaenia sapphirina.]

  • Scott, J.J.  2003.  The ecology of the exotic mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) and an examination of its role in the West Nile virus cycle in New Jersey.  [Ph. D. Dissertation].  W. J. Crans, advisor.  Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey – New Brunswick. 180 p. [Abstract of the dissertation: "Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) was discovered in the northeastern United States in 1998 and spread rapidly through North America emphasizing the need for information about its basic biology.  Expanded polystyrene floats were used to study the diel ovipositional activity of Oc. j. japonicus in the field and revealed that 98% of its ovipositional activity occurred between sunrise and sunset.  The effect of temperature on the developmental rate was investigated by hatching and rearing Oc. j. japonicus in the laboratory at 10ºC, 16ºC, 22ºC, 28ºC, 34ºC, and 40ºC.  Temperature was inversely related to the developmental period from 10ºC to 28ºC; at 34ºC development slowed, and no emergence occurred at 34ºC or 40ºC.  At 10ºC, Oc. j. japonicus remained in the larval stage for several months, suggesting that this species may overwinter as larvae where its habitat does not freeze solid.  The natural host-feeding habits of Oc. j. japonicus were investigated by sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene in mitochondrial DNA present in the undigested bloodmeals.  Field-collected Oc. j. japonicus fed on man and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  From 2000-2002, a total of 4,043 Oc. j. japonicus in 861 pools were tested for WNV in NJ; 21 pools were positive, yielding a cumulative minimum field infection rate of 5.19 per 1000 mosquitoes tested.  Eggs and immature Oc. j. japonicus were collected from sites in NJ with current or historical WNV activity, reared to emergence in the laboratory, and tested for WNV to detect naturally occurring transovarial transmission (TOT).  Although no TOT was detected, this is not conclusive evidence that natural TOT of WNV does not occur in Oc. j. japonicus.  It does suggest that vertical transmission in this species is not a significant source of reintroduction of WNV.  These data show that Ochlerotatus j. japonicus regularly acquires WNV and suggest that it should be considered a potential vector of WNV to humans and horses.  Additionally, the high rate of WNV infection in Oc. j. japonicus, combined with its efficient vector capacity and its apparent mammalophilic feeding habits supports the hypothesis of a mammalian component to the North American WNV cycle."]

  • Scott, J.J. "Species Account for Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald)". Revised 27 February2004http://www-rci.rutgers.edu/~insects/ocjap.htm  (11 December 2002). [Describes larval characters, geographic and seasonal distribution, associated species, and biology ofOchlerotatus japonicus]

  • Scott, J.J. "Comparison of Larval Characters of Exotic and Native Aedes/OchlerotatusMosquitoes in New Jersey". http://www-rci.rutgers.edu/~insects/morphcomp.htm  (11 December 2002). [A comparison of the larval characters of Aedes albopictus, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus and Oc. atropalpus. Includes illustrations and photos.]

  • Scott, J.J., F.L. Carle, and W.J. Crans. 2001a. Ochlerotatus japonicus collected from natural rockpools in New Jersey. Am. J. Mosq. Control Assoc. 17(2):91-92.

  • Scott, J.J., S.C. Crans, and W.J. Crans. 2001b. Use of an infusion-baited gravid trap to collect adult Ochlerotatus japonicus. Am. J. Mosq. Control Assoc. 17(2):142-143.

  • Scott, J.J., and W.J. Crans. 2003.  Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Floats for Ochlerotatus japonicus Surveillance.  J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19(4):376-81. 

  • Scott J.J., and L.J. McCuiston. 2002. Establishing & Maintaining a laboratory colony ofOchlerotatus japonicus [abstract]. In: The Abstract Book of A Joint Meeting: 68th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association and the West Central Mosquito & Vector Control Association 2002 February 16-21; Denver, CO. Eatontown, NJ: American Mosquito Control Association. p. 27. Abstract number 16PS29. [Abstract: Before its arrival in the northeastern UN in 1998, Ochlerotatus japonicus drew little scientific interest, & as a result our knowledge about its bionomics is limited.  Many aspects of a mosquito’s biology are difficult to observe in the field, & some experiments are possible only in a carefully controlled laboratory environment.  In order to increase our understanding of this mosquito’s biology & to allow us to conduct experiments throughout the year, we established a colony of Oc. japonicus at Rutgers in 1999 & have successfully maintained it to the present time.  Methods of rearing larvae, inducing mating & host preferences are described, as well as our solutions to difficulties encountered.]

  • Schaffner, F. and S. Chouin. 2003. First record of Aedes (Finlayajaponicus japonicus(Theobald, 1901) in metropolitan France. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 19(1):1-5.

  • Sota, T., S. Mogi, and E. Hayamizu. 1994. Habitat stability and the larval mosquito community in tree holes and other containers on a temperate island. Res. Pop. Ecol. (Kyoto) 36(1):93-104. [On Kabeshima Island in Kyushu, Japan, Oc. japonicus was the dominant species in stone vessels (water volume 165±115mL), and was also found in stone vases (water volume 68±36mL) and infrequently in tree holes. It was most often associated with Ae. albopictus, and was also found with Ae. riversi and Tripteroides bambusa. Oc. japonicusand Ae. albopictus both exploited containers in sunny sites.]

  • Sucharit, S., K. Surathin, and S. R. Shrestha. 1989. Vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV): species complexes of the vectors. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 20(4):611-621.

  • Sunahara, T. and M. Mogi. 1997. Drought and overwintering success of Tripteroides bambusa(Diptera: Culicidae) larvae and eggs in a bamboo grove. Medical Entomology & Zoology. 48(4):295-302. [Abstract: "We studied the effects of winter drought on the overwintering success of larvae and eggs of Tripteroides bambusa in a bamboo grove in northern Kyushu, southwestern Japan. A half of the bamboo stumps which harbored the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of T. bambusa in November 1995 dried up at least once in winter and almost all the larvae in them died. From November 1995 to March 1996, the total number of overwintering 3rd and 4th instar larvae in the study area decreased from 1208 to 225. The incidence of T. bambusa larvae increased from March, when the new cohort from overwintering eggs appeared and the total number of 2nd-4th instar larvae and pupae reached 2994 in May. About a half of them existed in stumps which had dried up at least once in winter, indicating that the overwintering eggs of T. bambusa have desiccation resistance. In spring, T. bambusa became abundant earlier than did other mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus and A. japonicus , and could grow without the major competitors. These overwintering characteristics of T. bambusa can facilitate its predominance in the bamboo grove."]

  • Sunahara, T., K. Ishizaka, and M. Mogi. 2002 Habitat size: a factor determining the opportunity for encounters between mosquito larvae and aquatic predators. J. Vector Ecol. Jun;27(1):8-20. Available from the SOVE website at http://www.sove.org/june2002/sunahara.pdf 

  • Suzuki, Y., S. Tanimura, M. Miyagawa and S. Murata. 1953. Species of mosquitoes collected in Tokushima City. III. Med. Biol. Tokyo 28:8-10. [Contains a description of Aedes bisanensis which was synonymized with Aedes japonicus in 1971 by Sasa and Kamimura]

  • Takaoka, H. 1982. Microsporidan infection of Aedes japonicus larvae in Japan. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology (Eisei Dobutsu) 33(1):71-72. [Japanese]

  • Takashima, I. and N. Hashimoto, 1985. Getah virus in several species of mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop. Med. Hyg. 79(4):546-550. [Oc. japonicus was found to be a competent vector of Getah virus under laboratory conditions.]

  • Takashima, I., N. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, and L. Rosen. 1989. Mosquito Collection in endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis in Hokkaido, Japan. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 51(5):947-953. [Adult Oc. japonicus were collected by light trap at and dry ice sweeping methods from four pig farms in Hokkaido. In sweep collections of the bushes near the pig pens, Oc. japonicus was the dominant species. In larval collections, Culex pipiens pallenswas the dominant species (882 of 945 larvae) and the remainder were Oc. japonicus. A total of 883 adult Oc. japonicus were collected in 1986 and tested for JE virus, but none were positive.]

  • Takashima, I. and L. Rosen. 1989. Horizontal and vertical transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 26(5):454-458.

  • Tanaka, K. 1971. Mosquitoes of the Ryukyu Islands. Abstracts of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Sanitary Zoology. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/129800-0.PDF  [abstract only; list of species from the Ryukyu Islands includes Oc. japonicus]

  • Tanaka, K. 2002. Studies on the pupal mosquitoes of Japan (5). Four subspecies of Aedes(Finlayajaponicus Theobald, including subsp. shintienensis from Taiwan (Diptera, Culicidae). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology. 8(1):63-77. [English Abstract: "Pupae of four subspecies of Aedes (Finlayajaponicus Theobald, including subsp.shintienensis TSAI et LIEN from Taiwan are described and discussed. A key to the subspecies is given. Tables showing the range and mode of branching of all the body setae are prepared for each subspecies. Seta 10-VIII, hitherto undescribed, is reported."]

  • Tanaka, K., K. Mizusawa, and E. S. Sagstad. 1975. A New species of the Genus Aedes(Aedes) from Japan, with synonymical notes on Japanese species of the subgenus Aedes(Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics 7(1):41-58.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/MS/07/MS07N01P041.PDF  [This article describes Aedes (Aedes)sasai. Under the Biological Notes, ti mentions that "One of our larval collections of this species at the type locality, Umegashima, contained a single larva of Ae. (Finlaya)japonicus." (p. 45)]

  • Tanaka, K., K. Mizusawa, and E. S. Saugstad. 1979. A revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor. MI) 16:1-987.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/wrbu_pubs/159/WR159.PDF  [An excellent publication that includes illustrations of larvae and adults, keys to species, and ecological information. Originals copies are not easy to find, but Peyton et al. 1999 reprinted Tanaka’s illustrations of Oc. japonicus.]

  • Tanimura, S. 1952. On the variation of the number of white bands of legs of Aedes japonicusTheobald collected in Tokushima City. likken Seibutsu Gakuho 2:173-178.

  • Theobald, F.V. 1901. A Monograph of the Culicidae of the World. Vol. I:385-386. British Museum of Natural History, London. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/131700-2.PDF 

  • Toma, T. and I. Miyagi. 1986. The mosquito fauna of the Ryukyu Archipelago with identification keys, pupal descriptions and notes on biology, medical importance and distribution. Mosquito Systematics 18(1):1-232. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/MS/18/MS18N01P001.PDF 

  • Tsai, T.W., and J.C. Lien. 1950. A new species of Aedes (Finlaya) found in Taiwan. J. Med. Assn. Formosa 49:177-183. http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/133500-0.PDF  [Describes Aedes shintienensis, which was later designated a subspecies of Aedes japonicus shintienensis.]

  • Tsuda, Y., M. Takagi, and Y. Wada. 1994. Ecological Study on mosquito communities in tree holes in Nagasaki, Japan, with special reference to Aedes albopictus. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology (Eisei Dobutsu) 45:103-111.

  • Tsuda, Y., and M. Takagi. 2001. Survival and development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae under a seasonally changing environment in Nagasaki, Japan. Environ. Entomol. 30(5):855-860.

  • Turell, M.J., M.L. O’Guinn, D.J. Dohm, and J.W. Jones.  2001.  Vector Competence of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.  J. Med. Entomol. 38(2):130-134.  Available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members athttp://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html [In the lab, Oc. japonicus was a competent vector of West Nile virus]

  • Turell, M.J., M.R. Sardelis, D.J. Dohm, and  M.L. O’Guinn. 2001.  Potential North American vectors of West Nile virus.  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 951:317-24.  Available online to New York Academy of Science (NYAS) members at www.annalsnyas.org [In the lab, Oc. japonicus was a competent vector of West Nile virus]

  • Uchida, K., T. Oda, H. Matsuoka, A. Moribayashi, D. Ohmori, Y. Eshita, and A. Fukunaga.2001. Induction of oogenesis in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) by infusion of the hemocoel with amino acids. J. Med. Entomol. 38(4):572-575. Available online to Entomological Association of America (ESA) members at http://www.entsoc.org/pubs/index.html 

  • Ward, R.A. 1984. Second supplement to “A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World” (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Systematics 16(3):227-270.http://wrbu.si.edu/www/MS/16/MS16N03P227.PDF 

  • Washington State Department of Health. 2002. West Nile Virus Surveillance in Washington State. http://www.doh.wa.gov/Publicat/2002_news/WestNileVirusSurv.pdf  [Reports the collection of Oc. japonicus during the 2001 mosquito surveillance season in the state of Washington. Only larvae were collected.] 

  • White, D.J., L.D. Kramer, P.B. Backenson, G. Lukacik, G. Johnson, J. Oliver, J.J. Howard, R.G. Means, M. Eidson, I. Gotham, V. Kulasekera, S. Campbell, the Arbovirus Research Laboratory and the Statewide West Nile Virus Response Teams.  2001.  Mosquito Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of West Nile Virus, New York State.  Emerg. Infect. Diseases 7(4):643-649.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol7no4/pdfs/white.pdf [5 of 526 pools of Oc. japonicuscollected in New York during 2000 were positive for West Nile virus by PCR assay]

  • Yamada, S. 1927. An experimental study on twenty-four species of Japanese mosquitoes regarding their suitability as intermediate hosts for Filaria bancrofti Cobbold. Sci. Rep. Govt. Inst. Infect. Dis. 6:559-622. [Yamada found that Oc. japonicus was not a suitable host for F. bancrofti]

  • Yamaguti, S. and W. J. LaCasse. 1952Culex (Culiciomyiakyotoensis n. sp. (Culicidae, Diptera) from Japan. (Monograph published by authors, May 15, 1952. Kyoto, Japan).http://wrbu.si.edu/www/REF/143700-4.PDF  [a larval association of Oc. japonicus withCulex kyotoensis; interestingly, this article describes Oc. japonicus as a “species favoring environments offering some degree of pollution with organic matter.” In my experience withOc. japonicus in the United States, it is most often found in relatively clean, clear water. Although there is typically a layer of leaf litter or other organic matter on the bottom of the container, Oc. japonicus is not a species that I associate with polluted water.]

  • Yamamura, T., K. Sahara, N. Kawamura, and T, Iizuka. 1993. The gene determining the polygonal pattern size (Pgd) is independent of the gene determining the egg size (Esd). Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan. 62(3). 195-199. [Oc. japonicus was the study organism for this paper. Abstract: "The interaction between two quantitative genes, the egg-size determining gene (Esd) on the W chromosome and the polygonal pattern-size determining gene (Pgd) on the Z chromosomes, was investigated by comparing the morphological expression of both genes in diploid and tetraploid individuals of normal and giant egg strains. The diploid females of the giant egg strain laid eggs as large as those of the tetraploid females of the normal-sized egg strain which do not carry the Ge gene. Since the Ge gene is identical with the Esd gene, the two kinds of females harbored the same number of Esd genes on the sex chromosomes. On the other hand, the polygonal patterns on the chorion of the eggs laid by the tetraploid females were larger than those of the diploid females in both strains. The results obtained suggest that the action of the Pgd gene is independent of the egg size, which is controlled by the Esd gene."

 

 

 


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